It contains explanation of empirical and descriptive approach to International Relations which is the scientific research, methods and applications, explanation of the processes that make up theories of international relations, theory s test and the contribution of re-stages of practical applications to this theory. Approaching this point of view, the discipline of international relations has three different levels of analysis.
Contact Us Search In International Relations an equilibrium of power sufficient to discourage or present one nation or prevent one nation from imposing its will on or interfering with the interests of another. Balance of Power, theory and policy of international relations that asserts that the most effective check on the power of a state is the power of other states.
In international relations, the term state refers to a country with a government and a population. The term balance of power refers to the distribution of power capabilities of rival states or alliance. The balance of power theory maintains that when one state or alliance increases its power or applies it more aggressively; threatened states will increase their own power in response, often by forming a counter-balancing coalition.
Balance of Power is a central concept in neorealist theory. It is difficult to give exact definition to balance of power because as Martin Wright says the notion is notoriously full of confusions.
The trouble with the balance power is not that it has no meaning but that it has too many meanings But essential idea is very simple but when principle is applied to the international relationsthe concept of power means that through shifting alliances and countervailing pressures ,no one power or combinations of powers will be allowed to grow so strong as to threaten the security of the rest as per Palmer and Perkins.
And finally Hartman explains concept of Balance of Power in International Relations as a system in the sense that one power bloc leads to the emergence of other and it ultimately leads to a network of alliances. The concept of balance of power rests on the assumption that excessive power anywhere in the system is a threat to the existence of the other units and that most effective antidote of power is power.
Balance of Power and International Relations As a policy, balance of power suggests that states counter any threat to their security by allying with other threatened states and by increasing their own military capabilities. The policy of forming a geographically based coalition of states to surround and block an expansionist power is known as containment.
As a theory, balance of power predicts that rapid changes in international power and status—especially attempts by one state to conquer a region—will provoke counterbalancing actions.
For this reason, the balancing process helps to maintain the stability of relations between states. A Balance of power system can functions effectively in two different ways: Multiple states can form a balance of power when alliances are fluid—that is, when they are easily formed or broken on the basis of expediency, regardless of values, religion, history, or form of government.
Occasionally a single state plays a balancer role, shifting its support to oppose whatever state or alliance is strongest. Britain played this role in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, particularly in its relations with France, Russia, and Germany.
Two states can balance against each other by matching their increases in military capability. In the Cold War, the Soviet Union and United States both expanded their nuclear arsenals to balance against each other.
One weakness of the balance of power concept is the difficulty of measuring power. Ultimately a state's power derives from the size of its land mass, population, and its level of technology.
But this potential power—measured roughly by a state's gross domestic product GDP —translates imperfectly into military capability.
The effective use of military force depends on such elements as leadership, morale, geography, and luck. Furthermore, leaders' misperceptions can seriously distort the calculation of power.
During the Vietnam Warfor example, U. Balance of Power in Ancient Times Historical examples of power balancing are found throughout history in various regions of the world, leading some scholars to characterize balance of power as a universal and timeless principle. During the Period of the Warring States in China BCthe development of large, cohesive states accompanied the creation of irrigation systems, bureaucracies, and large armies equipped with iron weapons.
These Chinese states pursued power through a constantly shifting network of alliances. In ancient Greece during the Peloponnesian War BCthe rising power of Athens triggered the formation of a coalition of city-states that felt threatened by Athenian power.
The alliance, led by Sparta, succeeded in defeating Athens and restoring a balance of power among Greek cities. In the 17th century the Habsburg dynasty, which ruled Austria and Spain, threatened to dominate Europe.
Early in the 19th century, french emperor Napoleon I repeatedly made efforts to conquer large areas of Europe. A broad coalition of European states—including Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia—defeated France in a series of major battles that climaxed with Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in The classical European balance of power system emerged thereafter in an alliance known as the Concert of Europe, organized in by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich.
This loose alliance between Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, and France ensured that a handful of great powers would coexist, with none able to dominate the others.
Under this system, and with Britain playing a balancer role, peace largely prevailed in Europe during the 19th century. During World War II, Germany's rising power, aggressive conquests, and alliance with Italy and Japan triggered yet another coalition of opposing states—notably the capitalist democracies of Britain and the United States, and the Communist Soviet Union.
Balance of Power and Cold War Balance of power so perfectly described the polarity of the Cold War that it became integral to, indeed practically synonymous with, the concept of the East-West order.
Although the image was so familiar as to be almost transparent, a great deal of political presumption was locked within its crystalline structure.
East and West existed, and there was a "balance" between them that presumably somehow "weighed" a quality called power, possessed by the enemies, each side, in the way material objects possess mass. This enemy, real enough, but also postulated by the balance of power-without an enemy, what would be balanced?
Throughout the Cold War, divisions among states party to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO or the Warsaw Pact, as well as divisions within each state, were obscured by the need to maintain a common front against the enemy.
In the context of the balance of power, the discipline of strategic studies turned on a single inquiry: This inquiry often raised nice issues of judgment.The advantages of strong state rights include: (1) states can be laboratories for democracy, (2) state and local governments are closer to the people, (3) states provide more access to the political system, and (4) states provide an important check on national power.
The Federalist Debates: Balancing Power Between State and Federal Governments. This series of activities introduces students to one of the most hotly debated issues during the formation of the American government -- how much power the federal government should have — or alternatively, how much liberty states and citizens should have.
The lesson begins by tracing the U.S. federal system of.
Balance of Power in International Relations: In International Relations an equilibrium of power sufficient to discourage or present one nation or prevent one nation from imposing its will on or interfering with the interests of another.
the balance of power. on the one hand. and a different. better kind of international relations on the other. It insists that a foreign policy based on the balance of power is one among several possible foreign policies and that only stupid and evil men will choose the former and reject the latter.
The balance of power is one of the oldest and most fundamental concepts in international relations theory. Although there are many variations of balance of power theory and interpretations of the concept, all are premised on the minimum of a tendency and the maximum of a lawlike recurrent.
International Relations, Principal Theories Anne-Marie Slaughter (sometimes termed ‘structural Realists’ or ‘Neorealists’, as opposed to the defensive Realists emphasize the stability of → balance of power systems, where a roughly equal distribution of power amongst States.