Essay on climate change in australia

This paper provides a holistic literature review of climate change and variability in Ghana by examining the impact and projections of climate change and variability in various sectors agricultural, health and energy and its implication on ecology, land use, poverty and welfare.

Essay on climate change in australia

Support Aeon Donate now Evolution has endowed the big-footed snowshoe hare with a particularly Essay on climate change in australia skill.

Over a period of about 10 weeks, as autumn days shorten in the high peaks and boreal forests, the nimble nocturnal hare transforms itself. Where it was once a tawny brown to match the pine needles and twigs amid which it forages, the hare turns silvery white, just in time for the falling of winter snow.

This transformation is no inconsequential feat. Lepus americanus, as it is formally known, is able to jump 10 feet and run at a speed of 27 miles per hour, propelled by powerful hind legs and a fierce instinct to live.

Going upriver

But it nonetheless ends up, 86 per cent of the time by one study, as a meal for a lynx, red fox, coyote, or even a goshawk or great horned owl.

The change of coat is a way to remain invisible, to hide in the brush or fly over the snow unseen, long enough at least to keep the species going. Snowshoe hares are widely spread throughout the colder, higher reaches of North America — in the wilderness of western Montana, on the coniferous slopes of Alaska, and in the forbidding reaches of the Canadian Yukon.

Essay on climate change in australia

The Yukon is part of the Beringia, an ancient swathe of territory that linked Siberia and North America by a land bridge that, with the passing of the last Ice Age 11, years ago, gave way to the Bering Strait. All manner of mammals, plants and insects ferried east and west across that bridge, creating, over thousands of years, the rich boreal forest.

But in this place, north of the degree latitude, the axiom of life coloured by stinging cold, early snow and concrete ribbons of ice has been upended in the cosmic blink of an eye. The average temperature has increased by 2 degrees Celsius in the past half century, and by 4 degrees Celsius in the winter.

Glaciers are rapidly receding, releasing ancient torrents of water into Kluane Lake, a square-mile reflecting pool that has been called a crown jewel of the Yukon. Lightning storms, ice jams, forest fires, rain — these things are suddenly more common.

Such rapid-fire changes across a broad swathe of northern latitudes are testing the adaptive abilities of the snowshoe hare, however swift and nimble it might be. But the hare changes its coat according to a long-set schedule, which is to say that the snowshoe is sometimes snowy white when its element is still robustly brown.

And that makes it an easier target for prey. Inwildlife biologists who tracked the hares in a rugged wilderness in Montana gave this phenomenon a name: The hares moulted as they always had.

Survival rates dropped by 7 per cent as predation increased. Like the Yukon, this pristine corner of Montana was projected to lose yet more snow cover; there would be perhaps an additional month of bare forest floor by the middle of this century, on which snowshoe hares would stand out like bright white balloons.

In the tally of species that will evolve or perish as temperatures rise, now consider the moose. The lumbering king of the deer family, known for antlers that can span six feet like giant outstretched fingers, the moose faces a litany of survival threats, from wolves and bears to brain worms and liver fluke parasites.

But in the late s in many northern states and Canada, something else began to claim adult cows and bull moose and, in even greater numbers, their single or twin calves. Lee Kantar is the moose biologist for the state of Maine, which means that he makes a living climbing the rugged terrain of north-central Maine when a GPS collar indicates a moose has died.

A lean man with a prominent salt-and-pepper moustache who wears flannel shirts and jeans to work, Kantar tagged 60 moose in January of around Moosehead Lake in the Maine Highlands.

By the end of that year, 12 adults and 22 calves were dead — 57 per cent of the group. When biologists examined the carcasses, they found what they thought was the cause. Calves not even a year old harboured up to 60, blood-sucking arthropods known as winter ticks. In Vermont, dead moose were turning up withticks — each.

Essay on climate change in australia

In New Hampshire, the moose population had dropped from 7, to 4, from the s tothe emaciated bodies of cows, bulls and calves bearing similar infestations of ticks. These magnificent animals were literally being bled to death.

Photo by Dan Bergeron Winter ticks have been known to afflict moose since the lates. In a normal year, a single moose might carry 1, or even 20, ticks. In a particularly harsh winter, when moose are underfed and weak, anaemia and hypothermia wrought by ticks can make the difference between life and death.

Bill Samuel, a biology professor now retired from the University of Alberta, has spent a career studying the moose of North America. He painstakingly countedticks on a moose in Alberta in In futile attempts to rid the parasite, these pathetic animals had rubbed against trees to seek relief, losing long, lustrous fur and leaving greyish, mottled patches.

Moose have long died from disease, predators, hunting and sometimes ticks. But their losses in the early 21st century had a different, more threatening, more consequential implication. Intwo environmental organisations, alarmed at population trends, petitioned the United States Secretary of the Interior to have the Midwestern moose listed as an endangered species.

In Minnesota, the number of moose dropped by 58 per cent in the decade through tosimilar to losses in New England.

Environmentalists believe moose could well be eradicated in the Midwest bywith stocks declining precipitously in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan.Claiming that climate change is a plot to steal American freedom is rather tame by Heartland standards.

Over the course of this two-day conference, I will learn that Obama’s campaign promise to. by Garth Paltridge An essay on the state of climate change science. (1) Is the science of climate change ‘settled’?

The scientific uncertainties associated with climate prediction are the basis of most of the arguments about the significance of climate change(25), and as well are the basis of much of the polarized public opinion on. Dec 03,  · United States Marines marching in Darwin, Australia, this year on Anzac Day, a day of remembrance for veterans.

The United States has long been Australia’s security guarantor. Illustrating the actual and potential impacts of climate change this paper seeks to dramatize the impacts climate change could have on Australia’s national security if action to cut carbon emissions is not taken.

In a warming world, ticks thrive in more places than ever before, making Lyme disease the first epidemic of climate change. To exaggerate is human, and scientists are human. Exaggeration and the complementary art of simplification are the basic rhetorical tools of human intercourse.

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