Max Weber German sociologist, economist, and political theorist. Regarded as one of the founders of modern sociological thought, Weber has had an immense impact on social science in the twentieth century, especially in the United States, and was one of the first to construct a systematic, methodological approach to the study of human behavior in society. Basing his conclusions on the comparative study of nearly all the major world cultures, Weber analyzed the economic, political, intellectual, histori cal, and religious factors that contribute to modem social realities.
Marx stressed capitalism and class conflict and Weber stressed rationalisation and bureaucracy. Marx and Weber identified problems within modern society. Marx had a generally optimistic view about the future and believed his theory could improve human conditions.
Weber on the other hand was more pessimistic. Weber argued that modern societies are characterised increasingly by a process of rationalisation meaning that the world is increasingly governed by rationality in which tradition and affective forms of action are replaced by predominantly rational forms.
This leads to disenchantment being seen as secularisation, including the progressive disposal of non-rational elements from all spheres of life.
Weber feared that this process of rationalisation would drive out the warmth and humanity of social life, the very things that give meaning to human existence. According to Marx however, modern societies are characterised by capitalism and who owns the means of production.
Marx distinguished four types of production that have succeeded each other; these are primitive communism, ancient society, feudalism and capitalism. These types of production are characterised by a set of class relations.
Those who own the means of production exploit the labour of those who do not own the means of production. In ancient society, masters exploited slaves.
In feudal society, Lords exploited serfs who were tied to the land; and in capitalist society, the bourgeoisie exploit the labour power of the proletariat who are forced to work for the bourgeoisie in order to survive. In each case of production exploitation leads to class conflict and the eventual replacement of each mode of production.
Marx and Weber had different views on bureaucracy. Weber believed that bureaucratic organisations were essential for the operation of the industrial society.
He believed that the growth of bureaucracy was a result of the development of new forms of power in industrial society with some individuals exercising more power than others within society and getting others to comply with their wishes whether they agreed with them or not.
This was because the organisation or person is seen as having a right to command obedience. Marx predicted there would be a proletarian revolution where administrators would be elected and truly responsible to the people.
Bureaucracy would cease to exist in a classless society. Marx viewed the development of modern nation states that linked to the development of capitalism. The state acts to ensure that political decisions are taken that allow capitalists to continue accumulation wealth.
Weber argued that the rise of bureaucratically organised states was part of the growing process of rationalisation, which accompanied the rise of capitalism. With view to religion, Marx believed that it was a conservative force in society whereas Weber used the ideas of the Protestant Ethic and the spirit of capitalism to show that religion could bring about social change.Essay on Marx and Weber - Although there were several differences between Marx and Weber, their most important point of view shared in modern capitalism is the fact that impersonal objects replace personal relations of dependence.
Karl Marx and Max Weber, both social scientists, devoted much of their work to the defining of capitalism through understanding its creation, causes, workings, and destiny.
In their evaluations of capitalism they arrive at two distinct conclusion caused by similar and distinctly different factors. Weber was born in Erfaut, Germany, on April 21, His father was a prosperous lawyer involved in German political circles and his mother was a religious woman who nonetheless emphasized the importance of secular education.
Jul 18, · Marx vs. Weber In this essay, I will argue that Karl Marx’s theories contain a better perception of the creation of capital and the origins of time discipline use in the modern world compared to the theories of Max Weber.
The basis to Marx’s theory. A comparison of Marx and Weber’s theories with respect to their ideas and interpretations on capitalism.
Marx’s view of the industrialist society he lived in was one of inequality and driven by capitalism. His ideas and interpretations of capitalism are based on historical precedent and.
A strong discrepancy in interpretation of religions exists between the two great thinkers, Marx and Weber, in that Marx saw religions as “the opiate of the masses” (Marx, ) meaning that religions justify believers’ bitter lives and make them passive whereas Weber saw religions as having power to bring about not just social but economic changes (Jong Seo, ).