Definition[ edit ] Evaluation is the structured interpretation and giving of meaning to predicted or actual impacts of proposals or results. It looks at original objectives, and at what is either predicted or what was accomplished and how it was accomplished.
Hire Writer People all over the world condemned what was happening as a brutal and unnecessary act which was in violation of the Chechens human rights. Clearly this was not a situation in which Russia would want to remain so Yeltsin and his administration attempted to counter this with their view of the war, putting forward the case for the invasion.
These main principles are democracy and rights, law and order and thirdly territorial integrity and unity, all used to argue that extreme measures, i. The Russian case focused on belittling the seriousness and legitimacy of the conflict and of the Chechen leaders.
The Yeltsin administration claimed the Dudayev regime was not elected democratically, gaining power in a coup in in elections that many were not allowed to take part in. Through this argument Russia could claim to be restoring freedom to Chechnya, giving back the democracy and rights that people in the federation enjoy, which Dudayev had taken away.
For instance in Yeltsins first address to the people after the invasion. At the same time, as the Russian government claims to have no issue with the Chechen people in general, it is trying to convince people that the level of force used is necessary to simply rid Chechnya of its supposedly unwanted Dudayev regime and restore democracy.
The second main feature of the Yeltsins case was appeals to law and order, in that the Russian use of force in Chechnya was required to restore the law and order Dudayev and his regime had removed. The basis of this argument was the new Constitution, adopted instated that it was against the law for any state to claim independence from the federation.
Its membership is codified in the Constitution. Russia argued Chechnya was out of control, including huge amount of illegal activity, violence and corruption, using the case of Budennovsk as an example where Chechen rebels killed dozens of Russian hostages.
They claimed their force and intrusion was needed to solve the problems in the state. On the whole the Russian argument of Law and Order, claimed Chechnya had illegally separated itself from Russia, turning it into a hotbed for criminal activity, which Russia wanted stopped and claimed it was obliged to control.
The fact that Chechnya wanted to break away from Russia was never considered to be a direct threat, Chechnya was too small compared to the huge Federation of Russia. Yeltsin spoke of this in his television address in Decemberarguing all the troops sent and the force used were all necessary to halt any threat to the unity of Russia and to ensure her territorial integrity.
Just as in Russia still did not want Chechen independence, as it may lead to more states wanting to leave. The Russian administration never mentioned any thought of a compromise to ease the Chechen problem and saw only a military method as a solution to the problem, claiming the Chechen leaders did not want a political solution.
This was not however enough to convince Russia or the world of the necessity for the level of force used. As soon as Russia invaded swarms of media arrived to criticize every action.
Out of the nine political parties in the Duma, surprisingly only the Liberal Democratic Party, surprisingly as most liberals were vehemently against the military intervention and only two well known democrats were in agreement with the invasion. Even the most powerful party in the Federation, the Communist Party, was very critical of their government.
Clearly there were too many strong arguments against the conflict and the force used. Even more than this the war itself had a high risk of worsening the democratic situation in Chechnya anyway, political elites had warned of what could happen and that the level of force used only increased support for Chechnya and Dudayev.
This principle was not very well received. Many believed the constitution to be a fraud and contested its legitimacy. The constitution was adopted inyears after Chechnya had claimed their independence so it is fair to say it should not apply to them.
Also the claim that the constitution advocates the use of whatever force necessary is a large accusation. The constitution was both vague on this and indicated a state of emergency had to of been declared for this to come into effect.
Both houses of parliament agreed the constitutional argument was a fraudulent one as the crisis needed to be put before them first and it was not. After the invasion many people blamed Russia for the Chechen problems.
Chechnya was lawless, with huge amounts of violence and instability before the conflict, but this did not mean Russia coming in with even more violence and force would solve the problem.
All it had seemed to do was kill thousands of innocent civilians, including ethnic Russians living in Chechnya, and made the situation worse. This was clearly a very problematic argument for Russia, she claimed to be working for law and order but was in fact breaking these principles herself at the expense of human rights, for instance use of air strikes and artillery shelling to combat the crime in Chechnya.
In contrast the territorial integrity and unity argument was in part accepted. Both political elites and citizens of Russia felt that despite the constitution being not completely applicable, Chechnya should remain a part of Russia.
Throughout history Russia has been attempting to retain its surrounding buffer states and, much like the western fear of communism, worried if one state left more will follow. This is known as the domino effect and it was a legitimate worry that led many Russians to feel despite the means used, the goal of the war was desirable.
This however is all it did. The principles of unity and territorial integrity did not justify nor explain the force used, it seemed Russia had brutally stormed in to regain its control without any peaceful process or compromise.
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It was even later revealed that the administration had been secretly assisting any attempt to overthrow Dudayev for years and waiting for an opportune moment to attack; this strongly went against fair and peaceful methods of re-incorporation of Chechnya that the Russian public and the world both wanted and felt were possible.This is a crucial skill to get good at in TOK.
It’s one skill to identify a knowledge issue, but it’s another skill to analyse them successfully and to . The simplified case studies apply the following four questions to determine whether NIH would consider the research study to be a clinical trial: Does the study involve human participants?
Are the participants prospectively assigned to an intervention? Is the study designed to evaluate the effect of. As an attorney, have you ever experienced a case that made you re-evaluate your life?
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