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Here are a few general guidelines to help you get started: Consider your reasons for testing. Will ongoing quizzes serve to motivate students? Will this final provide data for a grade at the end of the quarter? Will this mid-term challenge students to apply concepts learned so far?
The reason s for giving a test will help you determine features such as length, format, level of detail required in answers, and the time frame for returning results to the students. Maintain consistency between goals for the course, methods of teaching, and the tests used to measure achievement of goals.
If, for example, class time emphasizes review and recall of information, then so can the test; if class time emphasizes analysis and synthesis, then the test can also be designed to demonstrate how well students have learned these things.
Use testing methods that are appropriate to learning goals. For example, a multiple choice test might be useful for demonstrating memory and recall, for example, but it may require an essay or open-ended problem-solving for students to demonstrate more independent analysis or synthesis.
Most students will assume that the test is designed to measure what is most important for them to learn in the course. You can help students prepare for the test by clarifying course goals as well as reviewing material.
This will allow the test to reinforce what you most want students to learn and retain. Use consistent language in stating goals, in talking in class, and in writing test questions to describe expected outcomes. If you want to use words like explain or discuss, be sure that you use them consistently and that students know what you mean when you use them.
Design test items that allow students to show a range of learning. That is, students who have not fully mastered everything in the course should still be able to demonstrate how much they have learned. Multiple choice exams Multiple choice questions can be difficult to write, especially if you want students to go beyond recall of information, but the exams are easier to grade than essay or short-answer exams.
On the other hand, multiple choice exams provide less opportunity than essay or short-answer exams for you to determine how well the students can think about the course content or use the language of the discipline in responding to questions.
If you decide you want to test mostly recall of information or facts and you need to do so in the most efficient way, then you should consider using multiple choice tests.
The following ideas may be helpful as you begin to plan for a multiple choice exam: Since questions can result in misleading wording and misinterpretation, try to have a colleague answer your test questions before the students do.
Be sure that the question is clear within the stem so that students do not have to read the various options to know what the question is asking.
Avoid writing items that lead students to choose the right answer for the wrong reasons. For instance, avoid making the correct alternative the longest or most qualified one, or the only one that is grammatically appropriate to the stem.
Although you may want to include some items that only require recognition, avoid the temptation to write items that are difficult because they are taken from obscure passages footnotes, for instance.
Which questions proved to be the most difficult? Were there questions which most of the students with high grades missed? This information can help you identify areas in which students need further work, and can also help you assess the test itself: Were the questions worded clearly?
Was the level of difficulty appropriate? If scores are uniformly high, for example, you may be doing everything right, or have an unusually good class. On the other hand, your test may not have measured what you intended it to.
While essay and short-answer questions are easier to design than multiple-choice tests, they are more difficult and time-consuming to score. Moreover, essay tests can suffer from unreliable grading; that is, grades on the same response may vary from reader to reader or from time to time by the same reader.
For this reason, some faculty prefer short-answer items to essay tests. Be specific Use words and phrases that alert students to the kind of thinking you expect; for example, identify, compare, or critique Indicate with points or time limits the approximate amount of time students should spend on each question and the level of detail expected in their responses Be aware of time; practice taking the exam yourself or ask a colleague to look at the questions How do you grade essay exams?Start studying Chapter 8.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It is a two way table with content objectives and educational objectives related to the test. It is used to identify relative importance of each content area of a test Advantages include simple construction, reduction of the.
Start studying Chapter 8 quant. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. c. Essay items are more valid than objective items. d. Essay items encourage study for understanding more than objective items do. A.
if familiar with test construction techniques. D.
Objective, which require students to select the correct response from several alternatives or to supply a word or short phrase to answer a question or complete a statement. Examples: multiple choice, true-false, matching, completion. this exam includes some parts all of the quizzes i offer but you may purchase separately if desired.
[ purchase each separately]. Objective items include multiple-choice, true-false, matching and completion, while subjective items include short-answer essay, extended-response essay, problem solving and performance test items.
For some instructional purposes one or the other item types may prove more efficient and appropriate. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.