The academic information is in the programme profile and you will be supported by our doctoral training centres, Faculty Training Programme and Research Student Support Team. Research Training Our Faculty Training Programme provides a community made up of postgraduate social sciences and humanities students and staff. Although your focus will be on your specialist study, our aim is for you to develop a broad range of research and project management skills that will support you in your career ahead. We have nurtured a multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary and supportive environment where staff and students from across the world can come together and share their research experiences.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Argentina[ edit ] In Argentina the doctorate doctorado  is the Phd thesis eu law academic degree.
The intention is that candidates produce original contributions in their field knowledge within a frame of academic excellence. It is reviewed by a Doctoral Committee composed of examiners external to the program and at least one examiner external to the institution.
The degree is conferred after a successful dissertation defence.
Exceptions are based on their individual academic merit. A second and a third foreign language are other common requirements, although the requirements regarding proficiency commonly are not strict. The admissions process varies by institution. Some require candidates to take tests while others base admissions on a research proposal application and interview only.
In both instances however, a faculty member must agree prior to admission to supervise the applicant. Requirements usually include satisfactory performance in advanced graduate courses, passing an oral qualifying exam and submitting a thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to existing knowledge.
The thesis is examined in a final public oral exam administered by at least five faculty members, two of whom must be external. After completion, which normally consumes 4 years, the candidate is commonly awarded the degree of Doutor Doctor followed by the main area of specialization, e.
Physics, Chemistry, Biological and Life Sciences, etc. All graduate programs in Brazilian public universities are tuition-free mandated by the Brazilian constitution.
Competition for graduate financial aid is intense and most scholarships support at most 2 years of Master's studies and 4 years of doctoral studies. The normal monthly stipend for doctoral students in Brazil is between and USD.
A degree of Doutor usually enables an individual to apply for a junior faculty position equivalent to a US Assistant Professor.
Progression to full professorship known as Professor Titular requires that the candidate be successful in a competitive public exam and normally takes additional years. In the federal university system, doctors who are admitted as junior faculty members may progress usually by seniority to the rank of Associate Professor then become eligible to take the competitive exam for vacant full professorships.
In recent years somme initiatives as jointly supervised doctorates e. Bachelor of Arts degree ; 2 a five-year candidate's degree e. Doctor Philosophiaewhich is the higher doctorate.
A three-year extended research program, leading to the magister's degree was phased out to meet the international standards of the Bologna Process.
In the disputation, the candidate defends their thesis against three official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium ex auditorio.
The Medical doctorate abbreviated as M. It takes on average three to five years. Many postgraduate medical and surgical specialties students earn a Doctorate.
After finishing a 6-year medical school and one-year internship house officerphysicians and surgeons earn the M. They can then apply to earn a master's degree or a speciality diploma, then an MD degree in a specialty.
Geriatrics means a doctorate in Geriatricswhich is equivalent to a Ph. Finland[ edit ] The Finnish requirement for the entrance into doctoral studies is a master's degree or equivalent. All universities have the right to award doctorates.
Demonstrate understanding of their field and its meaning, while preparing to use scientific or scholarly study in their field, creating new knowledge.
Obtain a good understanding of development, basic problems and research methods Obtain such understanding of the general theory of science and letters and such knowledge of neighbouring research fields that they are able to follow the development of these fields. The way to show that these general requirements have been met is: Demonstrate critical and independent thought Prepare and publicly defend a dissertation a monograph or a compilation thesis of peer-reviewed articles.
Entrance to a doctoral program is available only for holders of a master's degree; there is no honors procedure for recruiting Bachelors.
Entrance is not as controlled as in undergraduate studies, where a strict numerus clausus is applied. Usually, a prospective student discusses their plans with a professor.Home» Departments and Centres» Law» Publications» Published PhD Theses.
The establishment of European Union criminal law entails the novel situation in which EU actors influence the definition and interpretation of This thesis studies the authority of legislation within the European Union. I believe that the EU legislature is an.
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Leiden University is a unique international centre for the advanced study of languages, cultures, arts, and societies worldwide, in their historical contexts from prehistory to the present. The Ph.D course in EU Law allows the graduate to acquire specialized training in one of the two Curricula (European Law and Law and Economics), which makes available a wide range of employment prospects depending on the specific Curriculum chosen.
In addition to writing the PhD thesis, all doctoral candidates are encouraged to engage in. Research news at MINES ParisTech MINES ParisTech ranked 6th best university in France and th worldwide by Center for World University Rankings.